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J9九游会AG机床选型怎么选?怎么选择合适的J9九游会AG机床

阅读人数: 次  J9九游会AG机床选型怎么选?怎么选择合适的J9九游会AG机床来源:宁波J9九游会AG精工 最后更新(xin)时(shi)间:2018-11-15

      跟着现代制作技能的开展,企业选用数控设备已是必定之选。现在市面上的数控设备已是琳琅满目,怎么选着既经济又合理地合适本企业的数控设备,一直是企业重视的话题。本文彻底从技能的视点对选型时应留意的问题点进行了全面的论述及讲解。

  对一个制作型企业来说,进步出产能力主要是从出产办理、制作工艺和出产设备等方面下手进行技能改造,而这几部分内容又是互为影响和彼此制约的。在技改中对出产设备及数控机床的更新、修理和收购等的挑选上有必要考虑到要在什么样环境下运用、怎么办理及怎样能到达最好的经济效果等问题

  挑选数控设备是要为制作某一些产品效劳的,挑选的设备可能用于产品零件的一部分工序加工也可能用于悉数工序加工。制作水平的凹凸首先应取决于工艺进程的规划,它将决议用什么办法和手法来加工,然后也决议了对运用设备的基本要求,这也是对出产进行技能组织和办理的根据。设备挑选的基本要求断定后还要根据市场上能供给什么样技能水平的配备来挑选,针对大部分中小批量出产的制作企业,挑选数控机床来代替旧机床或增强出产能力已是开展趋势。

 


  比较一般和数控两类机床的性能,数控机床具有加工杂乱形面零件能力强、习惯多种加工对象(柔性强);加工质量、精度和加工效率高;习惯CAD/CAM联网、合适制作加工信息集成办理;设备的利用率高、正常运转费用低一级特色。

  挑选数控机床是一个综合性技能问题,现在无论国内或是国外,都能出产供给多种多样的设备。数控机床经几十年开展已演变出一个巨大宗族集体,能完结各种各样的加工及制作要求。怎么从品种繁多、价格昂贵的设备中挑选最适用的设备,怎么使这些设备在制作中充沛发挥作用并且又能满意企业今后的开展,怎么正确、合理地选购与主机配套的附件、东西、软件技能、售后技能效劳等,使收购的设备能到达较好的投入比……这些问题都是广阔收购者有必要考虑,并逐一要处理好的问题。
​​

 

一、确定典型加工工件“族(zu)”

  确(que)(que)(que)定(ding)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)什(shen)么样的(de)(de)零件(jian)是选择设备(bei)(bei)的(de)(de)第一步。企业根据技(ji)术(shu)的(de)(de)改造和(he)生(sheng)产发(fa)(fa)展需(xu)要,确(que)(que)(que)定(ding)有哪些(xie)零件(jian)、哪些(xie)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序准备(bei)(bei)用(yong)新的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)设备(bei)(bei)来完成(cheng),要考虑到产品的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展的(de)(de)远景规(gui)划。用(yong)成(cheng)组的(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)把这些(xie)零件(jian)进行分(fen)组归类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei),确(que)(que)(que)定(ding)准备(bei)(bei)主要加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)典(dian)(dian)型零件(jian)族(zu)。在归类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)中(zhong)往(wang)往(wang)会遇到零件(jian)的(de)(de)规(gui)格(ge)大小相(xiang)差(cha)很多(duo)、零件(jian)形状的(de)(de)相(xiang)差(cha)较(jiao)大、各类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)零件(jian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时大大超过设备(bei)(bei)的(de)(de)满负荷(he)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时等(deng)(deng)问题,因(yin)此,要进一步选择确(que)(que)(que)定(ding)生(sheng)产纲(gang)领(ling)又比(bi)较(jiao)接近要求的(de)(de)典(dian)(dian)型工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)族(zu)。典(dian)(dian)型工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)族(zu)按外型可(ke)以(yi)分(fen)为菱形类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(箱体类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei))、板类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)、回转体类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(盘(pan)、套、轴、法兰(lan))和(he)异形类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)等(deng)(deng);按加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精度要求又可(ke)分(fen)普通级(ji)和(he)精密级(ji)等(deng)(deng)。典(dian)(dian)型零件(jian)分(fen)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)清楚了(le),基本加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)设备(bei)(bei)也(ye)就(jiu)比(bi)较(jiao)明确(que)(que)(que)了(le)。

 

 

二(er)、典型的零件族的工艺规程设计

  在确定加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)零件后(hou)还(hai)必须用数(shu)控加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)学观点对(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)流程进行(xing)(xing)新的(de)(de)规(gui)划(hua)设计,这里(li)包括对(dui)原工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)生(sheng)产的(de)(de)流程的(de)(de)变革(ge)、探索(suo)与实现(xian)新工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)方法的(de)(de)可(ke)行(xing)(xing)性(xing)(xing)、探索(suo)与实现(xian)现(xian)代(dai)生(sheng)产管理和物流管理可(ke)行(xing)(xing)性(xing)(xing)、探索(suo)与使用先进刀具工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)装大幅度提高生(sheng)产效(xiao)率的(de)(de)可(ke)行(xing)(xing)性(xing)(xing)、探索(suo)在生(sheng)产线上的(de)(de)数(shu)控设备和其他设备(普通的(de)(de)、专(zhuan)机的(de)(de))的(de)(de)合理的(de)(de)配制(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)等,目(mu)的(de)(de)是希望(wang)得到使用数(shu)控机床后(hou)最佳工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)流程。下面是几个典型类的(de)(de)零件的(de)(de)合理加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)
 

  ☆轴(zhou)类零件(jian):铣(xian)端面与打(da)中(zhong)心孔→数控(kong)车床(粗加工(gong))→数控(kong)磨床(精加工(gong));

  ☆法兰和盘类件:数控(kong)车(che)床(粗加工)→车(che)削中心(精加工);

  ☆型腔模具零件(jian):普(pu)通机(ji)床加工外形(xing)及基面→数控(kong)(kong)铣床加工型面→高速数控(kong)(kong)铣精加工→抛光或电腐(fu)蚀(shi)型面;

  ☆板类零件:双轴铣床或龙(long)门(men)铣床加工大平(ping)面(mian)→立式加工中心上加工各类孔;

  ☆箱体零(ling)件:立式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上(shang)(shang)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)底面→卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上(shang)(shang)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)四(si)周面各工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺面。


 

  在安排工艺流(liu)程中考虑下列因素:

  (1)选(xuan)择最短的(de)加(jia)工工艺流程。

  (2)数(shu)控机床有相当(dang)大(da)适应性,但也不是万能的,从(cong)经济(ji)观(guan)点(dian)考虑(lv),典(dian)型(xing)工(gong)件族(zu)中每一(yi)种(zhong)零件都有一(yi)个经济(ji)批量(liang),应在经济(ji)批量(liang)基础上使用比(bi)较先进(jin)的工(gong)艺手段。

  (3)尽量(liang)发挥机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)各种工(gong)艺(yi)特点,追求(qiu)最(zui)大限度(du)地发挥数控机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)综合加工(gong)能力特长(多工(gong)序(xu)集(ji)中的(de)工(gong)艺(yi)特点),应在生产流程中配(pei)置最(zui)少的(de)机(ji)床(chuang)数量(liang)、最(zui)少的(de)工(gong)艺(yi)装备和夹具。

  (4)要考(kao)虑生(sheng)(sheng)产线或生(sheng)(sheng)产车间(jian)的(de)(de)各(ge)(ge)种设备能(neng)力的(de)(de)平(ping)衡。作为单台数(shu)(shu)(shu)控机床的(de)(de)选择或一条(tiao)生(sheng)(sheng)产线的(de)(de)配置,单一的(de)(de)设备不可能(neng)完全包下一个工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)全部加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu),必然有和其他设备的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)转接,各(ge)(ge)设备之间(jian)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产能(neng)力要平(ping)衡,满足生(sheng)(sheng)产节拍的(de)(de)综合(he)(he)要求(qiu),所(suo)以安排(pai)每(mei)台设备上的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)数(shu)(shu)(shu)量、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)顺(shun)序(xu)(xu)等既(ji)要发挥各(ge)(ge)台数(shu)(shu)(shu)控机床的(de)(de)特长、满足精度要求(qiu),还要进(jin)一步应(ying)考(kao)虑各(ge)(ge)台机床上工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)转序(xu)(xu)时(shi)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)基准的(de)(de)合(he)(he)理使用。

  (5)在(zai)(zai)(zai)安排数控加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)中(zhong)(zhong)经常碰到的(de)(de)(de)问题是(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)与工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)渐精(jing)(jing)原则的(de)(de)(de)矛盾(dun)。在(zai)(zai)(zai)数控机床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)使用上(shang),人们普遍(bian)采(cai)用将(jiang)多工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)(zai)(zai)一(yi)台机床(chuang)上(shang)完(wan)成的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)原则,以(yi)此来(lai)追求(qiu)(qiu)提高(gao)生产率,缩短零(ling)件(jian)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)周期,甚(shen)至希望(wang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)在(zai)(zai)(zai)一(yi)次(ci)装卡中(zhong)(zhong)全(quan)部加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)完(wan)毕。但实际上(shang)对一(yi)些(xie)复(fu)杂的(de)(de)(de)、精(jing)(jing)度要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)较高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),由于(yu)在(zai)(zai)(zai)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)热变形(xing)(xing)、内(nei)应力(li)引起的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)变形(xing)(xing)、工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)夹(jia)具夹(jia)紧(jin)变形(xing)(xing)、热处理要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)时(shi)效(xiao)等(deng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)因(yin)素和程编者操(cao)作因(yin)素等(deng),很难一(yi)次(ci)装卡完(wan)成全(quan)部加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。基本(ben)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)准则中(zhong)(zhong)对加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)逐步精(jing)(jing)化要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)制约着工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)数量(liang),妥善处理这两者矛盾(dun)是(shi)数控加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)内(nei)容。

  (6)在(zai)对典型工(gong)(gong)件族(zu)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)流(liu)程的(de)安排中,应妥(tuo)善安排各台机床和生产线的(de)手工(gong)(gong)调(diao)整和检(jian)测(ce)等(deng)工(gong)(gong)作,即人(ren)工(gong)(gong)干预(yu)的(de)影响。企(qi)(qi)业要根据自(zi)身的(de)技术(shu)(shu)装备能力(li)(li)、技术(shu)(shu)水平和技术(shu)(shu)改造投入(ru)的(de)力(li)(li)度(du),确(que)定(ding)在(zai)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)流(liu)程中人(ren)工(gong)(gong)干预(yu)的(de)程度(du),这决定(ding)了对选择数控机床的(de)自(zi)动化(hua)水平和功能要求。应客观考虑适当采(cai)用手工(gong)(gong)调(diao)整来补充(chong)企(qi)(qi)业要达到完全自(zi)动化(hua)的(de)能力(li)(li),对企(qi)(qi)业的(de)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)能力(li)(li)和设备水平确(que)切定(ding)位(wei)。


 

三(san)、数控机床主要的(de)特征规格的(de)选择

  机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)特征规格的(de)(de)包括机(ji)(ji)型、机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)规格参数(shu)和机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)主(zhu)电机(ji)(ji)功率等。在确(que)定工(gong)艺内容前提下,机(ji)(ji)型选择就(jiu)比较明(ming)确(que)了。例如,回(hui)转体零件加(jia)(jia)工(gong),主(zhu)要可供(gong)选择设备有车床(chuang)(chuang)、车削中心、数(shu)控磨床(chuang)(chuang)等;箱体的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)则(ze)应(ying)以立式或(huo)卧式的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心为主(zhu)。

 

  数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)床已经发展成品种繁多、可供广泛的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择商品,在(zai)机(ji)型的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择中(zhong)(zhong)应在(zai)满(man)足(zu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)的(de)前提下(xia)越简(jian)单越好(hao)。例如(ru),车(che)削(xue)(xue)中(zhong)(zhong)心与数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)车(che)床都(dou)可以加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轴类零件,但一(yi)台(tai)满(man)足(zu)同(tong)样加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)规(gui)格(ge)(ge)的(de)车(che)削(xue)(xue)中(zhong)(zhong)心价(jia)格(ge)(ge)要(yao)(yao)比数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)车(che)床贵几倍,如(ru)果没有进一(yi)步工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)车(che)床应是合(he)理的(de)。在(zai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)型腔模(mo)具零件中(zhong)(zhong),同(tong)规(gui)格(ge)(ge)的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)铣床和加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心都(dou)能满(man)足(zu)基本(ben)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),但两种机(ji)床价(jia)格(ge)(ge)相差20%~50%,所以在(zai)模(mo)具加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)采用(yong)常更换(huan)刀具的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺可安(an)排选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心,而(er)固定一(yi)把刀具长时间(jian)铣削(xue)(xue)的(de)可选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)铣床。


 

  数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)最(zui)主要(yao)规格是(shi)几个数(shu)控(kong)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)的(de)行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)范(fan)围(wei)和主轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)电机(ji)(ji)功率。机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)三(san)个基(ji)本直(zhi)线坐标(X、Y、Z)行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)反映该机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)允(yun)许(xu)(xu)的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)空间,在(zai)车床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)中两个坐标(X、Z)反映允(yun)许(xu)(xu)回转体的(de)大(da)小。一般情况下(xia)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)轮廓尺(chi)寸应在(zai)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)空间范(fan)围(wei)之内(nei),例如(ru),典型工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)是(shi)450 mm ×450 mm ×450 mm的(de)箱体,那么应选取工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面(mian)(mian)尺(chi)寸为(wei)500mm×500 mm的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)。选用工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面(mian)(mian)比典型工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)稍大(da)一些是(shi)出于安装夹(jia)具(ju)考虑(lv)的(de)。机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面(mian)(mian)尺(chi)寸和三(san)个直(zhi)线坐标行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)都有一定(ding)的(de)比例关系,如(ru)上述工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)(500 mm ×500 mm)的(de)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang),x轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)一般为(wei)(700~800)mm、y轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)为(wei)(500~700)mm、z轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)为(wei)(500~600)mm左右。因此,工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面(mian)(mian)的(de)大(da)小基(ji)本上确定(ding)了加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)空间的(de)大(da)小。个别情况下(xia)也允(yun)许(xu)(xu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)尺(chi)寸大(da)于坐标行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng),这时必须要(yao)求零件(jian)(jian)(jian)上的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)区域处在(zai)行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)范(fan)围(wei)之内(nei),而(er)且要(yao)考虑(lv)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)的(de)允(yun)许(xu)(xu)承载能力,以及工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)是(shi)否与机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)交(jiao)换(huan)刀刀具(ju)的(de)空间干(gan)涉、与机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)防护罩等附件(jian)(jian)(jian)发生干(gan)涉等系列问(wen)题。
 

  数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)在(zai)(zai)同类规格机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)也(ye)可以有(you)各种(zhong)不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)配置,一般情况下反映了该(gai)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)切削(xue)(xue)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)和主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴高速(su)(su)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)。例如,轻型(xing)(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)比标准型(xing)(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)就(jiu)(jiu)可能(neng)小1~2级。目前一般加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴转速(su)(su)在(zai)(zai)(4000~8000)r/min,高速(su)(su)型(xing)(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)立式机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)可达(da)(20000~70000)r/min,卧(wo)式机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(10000~20000)r/min,其主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)也(ye)成倍加大。主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)反映了机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)切削(xue)(xue)效率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv),从(cong)另一个(ge)侧(ce)面也(ye)反映了切削(xue)(xue)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)整(zheng)体刚(gang)度(du)。在(zai)(zai)现代(dai)中(zhong)(zhong)小型(xing)(xing)数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)中(zhong)(zhong),主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴箱的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械变速(su)(su)已(yi)较少采(cai)(cai)用,往往都(dou)采(cai)(cai)用功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)较大的(de)(de)(de)交流可调速(su)(su)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)直联(lian)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴,甚至采(cai)(cai)用电(dian)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴结构。这(zhei)样的(de)(de)(de)结构在(zai)(zai)低(di)(di)速(su)(su)中(zhong)(zhong)扭(niu)矩受到(dao)限制,即调速(su)(su)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)(zai)低(di)(di)转速(su)(su)时输出(chu)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)下降,为了确(que)保低(di)(di)速(su)(su)输出(chu)扭(niu)矩,就(jiu)(jiu)得采(cai)(cai)用大功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji),所以同规格机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)比普通机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)大好几(ji)倍。当使用单(dan)位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)一些典型(xing)(xing)工(gong)件(jian)上(shang)有(you)大量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)低(di)(di)速(su)(su)加工(gong)时,也(ye)必须对选(xuan)择机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)低(di)(di)速(su)(su)输出(chu)扭(niu)矩进(jin)行校核。轻型(xing)(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)在(zai)(zai)价(jia)格上(shang)肯定便宜,要求用户根据(ju)自己的(de)(de)(de)典型(xing)(xing)工(gong)件(jian)毛(mao)坯余量(liang)大小、切削(xue)(xue)能(neng)力(单(dan)位(wei)时间金属切除量(liang))、要求达(da)到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)加工(gong)精度(du)、实际(ji)能(neng)配置什么样刀具(ju)等因(yin)素(su)综合(he)选(xuan)择机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。


 

  近(jin)年来(lai)数控(kong)机(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)高(gao)速化趋势(shi)发展很快,主轴(zhou)从每分钟几千(qian)转(zhuan)到几万转(zhuan),直(zhi)线坐标(biao)快速移动速度从(10~20)m/min上(shang)升到80m/min以(yi)上(shang),当然机(ji)床(chuang)价格也(ye)(ye)相(xiang)应上(shang)升,用户(hu)单位必须根据自己(ji)的(de)(de)技术能力(li)和配套能力(li)做出(chu)合理选择。例如,立式加(jia)工(gong)中心上(shang)主轴(zhou)最(zui)高(gao)转(zhuan)速可达(50000~80000)r/min,除了一些加(jia)工(gong)特例以(yi)外,一般(ban)相(xiang)配套的(de)(de)刀(dao)具就(jiu)很昂(ang)贵(gui)。一些高(gao)速车床(chuang)都(dou)可以(yi)达到(6000~8000)r/min以(yi)上(shang),这时车刀(dao)的(de)(de)配置要求也(ye)(ye)很高(gao)。
 

  对(dui)少量(liang)特(te)殊工(gong)件仅(jin)靠三个直线坐(zuo)标(biao)加工(gong)不能(neng)(neng)满(man)足要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),要(yao)(yao)另外(wai)增加回转坐(zuo)标(biao)(A、B、C)或(huo)附加工(gong)坐(zuo)标(biao)(U、V、W)等(deng),目前机床(chuang)市(shi)场上这些要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)都能(neng)(neng)满(man)足,但机床(chuang)价格会增长很多(duo),尤其是对(dui)一些要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)多(duo)轴联动加工(gong)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),如四轴、五轴联动加工(gong),必须(xu)对(dui)相应配套(tao)的编(bian)程软件、测(ce)量(liang)手段等(deng)有全面考(kao)虑和安排。

 


 

四、机床精度的选择

 

  典型(xing)的零件(jian)关键部位(wei)加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)(jing)度(du)要求决定了选(xuan)择数(shu)控机(ji)床(chuang)的精(jing)(jing)度(du)等级。数(shu)控的机(ji)床(chuang)根据(ju)用(yong)途又分为简(jian)易(yi)型(xing)、全功能型(xing)、超(chao)精(jing)(jing)密(mi)(mi)型(xing)等,其(qi)能达到(dao)的精(jing)(jing)度(du)也各不一(yi)样(yang)的。简(jian)易(yi)型(xing)的目前还用(yong)于(yu)一(yi)部分车床(chuang)和铣床(chuang),其(qi)最小(xiao)的运(yun)动分辩(bian)率(lv)为0.01mm,运(yun)动精(jing)(jing)度(du)和加(jia)(jia)工的精(jing)(jing)度(du)都在(zai)(0.03~0.05)mm以(yi)上。超(chao)精(jing)(jing)密(mi)(mi)型(xing)的用(yong)于(yu)特殊(shu)加(jia)(jia)工,其(qi)精(jing)(jing)度(du)可达0.001mm以(yi)下。这里主要讨论应用(yong)最多地全功能数(shu)控机(ji)床(chuang)(以(yi)加(jia)(jia)工中心为主)。

 

  按(an)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)可(ke)分为普通型与精(jing)(jing)(jing)密型,一(yi)般数控的(de)(de)机床精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)检验项(xiang)目(mu)都有(you)20~30项(xiang),但其最有(you)特征项(xiang)目(mu)是:单(dan)(dan)轴定位精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)、单(dan)(dan)轴重复定位精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)和两轴以上联动加工出试件的(de)(de)圆度(du)。
 

  定(ding)(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)和(he)重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)综合反(fan)映(ying)了该(gai)轴(zhou)各(ge)运动(dong)(dong)部件的(de)(de)综合精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)。尤其是重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du),它反(fan)映(ying)了该(gai)轴(zhou)在(zai)(zai)行程内任意定(ding)(ding)位(wei)点(dian)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)性,这是衡量(liang)(liang)该(gai)轴(zhou)能否(fou)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)基(ji)本(ben)指(zhi)标。目前(qian)数控系统中软件都有(you)丰富的(de)(de)误(wu)差补偿功能,能对进给传(chuan)动(dong)(dong)链(lian)上各(ge)环节(jie)系统误(wu)差进行稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)补偿。例如(ru),传(chuan)动(dong)(dong)链(lian)各(ge)环节(jie)的(de)(de)间隙、弹性变形和(he)接触刚(gang)度(du)(du)(du)等变化因素,它们往往随着(zhe)工作台的(de)(de)负载大小、移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)距离长(zhang)短、移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)速度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)快慢等反(fan)映(ying)出不同的(de)(de)瞬时运动(dong)(dong)量(liang)(liang)。在(zai)(zai)一些(xie)开环和(he)半闭环进给伺服(fu)系统中,测量(liang)(liang)元(yuan)件以后的(de)(de)机(ji)械(xie)驱动(dong)(dong)元(yuan)件,受(shou)各(ge)种偶然因素影(ying)响,也(ye)有(you)相当大的(de)(de)随机(ji)误(wu)差影(ying)响,如(ru)滚珠(zhu)丝杠热伸(shen)长(zhang)引起的(de)(de)工作台实际(ji)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)位(wei)置漂移(yi)(yi)等。总之(zhi),如(ru)果能选(xuan)择(ze),那(nei)么(me)就(jiu)选(xuan)重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)最好(hao)的(de)(de)设(she)备!
 

  铣(xian)(xian)削圆(yuan)柱面(mian)(mian)(mian)精(jing)度(du)(du)或铣(xian)(xian)削空间螺(luo)旋槽(cao)(螺(luo)纹(wen))是综合评(ping)价(jia)该机床有(you)关数控轴(zhou)(zhou)(两轴(zhou)(zhou)或三轴(zhou)(zhou))伺服跟随运(yun)动(dong)(dong)特性和数控系统(tong)插(cha)补(bu)功能的(de)(de)指标,评(ping)价(jia)方法是测(ce)量(liang)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)出圆(yuan)柱面(mian)(mian)(mian)的(de)(de)圆(yuan)度(du)(du)。在(zai)(zai)数控机床试(shi)切(qie)件(jian)(jian)(jian)中(zhong)还有(you)铣(xian)(xian)斜方形(xing)(xing)四边加(jia)工(gong)(gong)法,也(ye)可判(pan)断两个可控轴(zhou)(zhou)在(zai)(zai)直(zhi)线插(cha)补(bu)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)时的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)。在(zai)(zai)做这(zhei)项试(shi)切(qie)时,把用于精(jing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)立铣(xian)(xian)刀装到机床主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)(shang)(shang),铣(xian)(xian)削放置在(zai)(zai)工(gong)(gong)作台上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)圆(yuan)形(xing)(xing)试(shi)件(jian)(jian)(jian),对(dui)中(zhong)小型机床圆(yuan)形(xing)(xing)试(shi)件(jian)(jian)(jian)一(yi)般取在(zai)(zai)Ф200~Ф300,然后把切(qie)完的(de)(de)试(shi)件(jian)(jian)(jian)放到圆(yuan)度(du)(du)仪(yi)上(shang)(shang)(shang),测(ce)出其加(jia)工(gong)(gong)表面(mian)(mian)(mian)的(de)(de)圆(yuan)度(du)(du)。铣(xian)(xian)出圆(yuan)柱面(mian)(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang)(shang)有(you)明显铣(xian)(xian)刀振纹(wen)反(fan)映(ying)该机床插(cha)补(bu)速(su)度(du)(du)不稳定;铣(xian)(xian)出的(de)(de)圆(yuan)度(du)(du)有(you)明显椭圆(yuan)误差(cha),反(fan)映(ying)插(cha)补(bu)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)两个可控轴(zhou)(zhou)系统(tong)增益不匹配;在(zai)(zai)圆(yuan)形(xing)(xing)表面(mian)(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang)(shang)每一(yi)可控轴(zhou)(zhou)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)换方向(xiang)的(de)(de)点(dian)位上(shang)(shang)(shang)有(you)停(ting)刀点(dian)痕迹(ji)(在(zai)(zai)连续切(qie)削运(yun)动(dong)(dong)中(zhong),在(zai)(zai)某一(yi)位置停(ting)止进给运(yun)动(dong)(dong)刀具就会在(zai)(zai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)表面(mian)(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang)(shang)形(xing)(xing)成一(yi)小段多(duo)切(qie)去金属的(de)(de)痕迹(ji))时,反(fan)映(ying)该轴(zhou)(zhou)正反(fan)向(xiang)间隙没有(you)调整好(hao)。


 

  单(dan)轴定(ding)位精度是指(zhi)在该(gai)轴行(xing)程内任意一(yi)个点定(ding)位时的(de)(de)误差(cha)(cha)范围,它(ta)直(zhi)接反(fan)映(ying)了(le)机(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)加(jia)工精度能(neng)力,所(suo)(suo)以(yi)是数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)床最(zui)关键技术指(zhi)标(biao)。目前全世界各国(guo)对这指(zhi)标(biao)的(de)(de)规定(ding)、定(ding)义(yi)、测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)方法和数(shu)据处理等有(you)所(suo)(suo)不(bu)同,在各类数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)床样本资料介绍中,常用(yong)的(de)(de)标(biao)准(zhun)有(you)美国(guo)标(biao)准(zhun)(NAS)和美国(guo)机(ji)(ji)床制造商协会推荐标(biao)准(zhun)、德国(guo)标(biao)准(zhun)(VDI)、日本标(biao)准(zhun)(JIS)、国(guo)际标(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)组织(ISO)和我(wo)国(guo)国(guo)家标(biao)准(zhun)(GB)。在这些标(biao)准(zhun)中规定(ding)最(zui)低(di)的(de)(de)是日本标(biao)准(zhun),因为它(ta)的(de)(de)测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)方法是使用(yong)单(dan)组稳定(ding)数(shu)据为基础,然后又取(qu)出用(yong)±值(zhi)把(ba)误差(cha)(cha)值(zhi)压缩一(yi)半,所(suo)(suo)以(yi)用(yong)它(ta)的(de)(de)测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)方法测(ce)(ce)(ce)出的(de)(de)定(ding)位精度往(wang)往(wang)比(bi)用(yong)其他标(biao)准(zhun)测(ce)(ce)(ce)出的(de)(de)相差(cha)(cha)一(yi)倍(bei)以(yi)上(shang)。
 

  其他几种(zhong)标准(zhun)尽管(guan)处理数(shu)(shu)据上(shang)有所区(qu)别,但都反映(ying)了要按误差(cha)统计规律来分析测量(liang)定(ding)位精度,即对数(shu)(shu)控机床某(mou)(mou)一(yi)(yi)(yi)可控轴(zhou)行程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)某(mou)(mou)一(yi)(yi)(yi)个定(ding)位点(dian)误差(cha),应该反映(ying)出该点(dian)在以后机床长期(qi)使(shi)用中(zhong)(zhong)成千上(shang)万次(ci)在此定(ding)位的误差(cha),而J9九游会AG 在测量(liang)时只(zhi)能测量(liang)有限次(ci)数(shu)(shu)(一(yi)(yi)(yi)般5~7次(ci))。
 

五、数控系统的选择


  随着市场(chang)需求(qiu)多样化(hua),机床(chuang)制造商(shang)往往提供同(tong)一种(zhong)机床(chuang)可(ke)配置多种(zhong)数(shu)控的(de)选择(ze)或数(shu)控系统中多种(zhong)选择(ze)功能(neng)的(de)选择(ze)。

 

  机(ji)床制(zhi)造商(shang)提供的机(ji)床配(pei)置(zhi)的数控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)分为主流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)及可适应(ying)(ying)的系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong),主流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)(dui)来说(shuo)技(ji)术成熟(shu)性好一些,但对(dui)(dui)(dui)使用用户(hu)(hu)应(ying)(ying)另(ling)有(you)要求(qiu)(qiu),例如对(dui)(dui)(dui)名牌系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的质量追求(qiu)(qiu)、希望(wang)在国内有(you)较(jiao)好的售(shou)后技(ji)术条件(jian)、在用户(hu)(hu)单位(wei)(wei)使用的数控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)(dui)集中在几家(jia)等要求(qiu)(qiu),以便使用掌握(wo)和维修配(pei)件(jian)准备,所以用户(hu)(hu)单位(wei)(wei)都愿(yuan)意配(pei)置(zhi)自己信得(de)过或比较(jiao)熟(shu)悉的数控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)。


 

  在(zai)可供选择的(de)系(xi)(xi)统中性能(neng)高(gao)低差别很大(da),直接影响到设备价(jia)格(ge)构成,因(yin)此(ci)不能(neng)片面追求高(gao)水平、新系(xi)(xi)统,而应以满足(zu)主机(ji)性能(neng)为主,对系(xi)(xi)统性能(neng)和(he)价(jia)格(ge)等作一个综(zong)合(he)分析,选用合(he)适的(de)系(xi)(xi)统。目前世界上比较着名的(de)数控系(xi)(xi)统有(you)日本的(de)FANUC、德国(guo)(guo)的(de)SINUMERIK、法国(guo)(guo)的(de)NUM、意(yi)大(da)利的(de)FIDIA、西班牙的(de)FAGO和(he)美(mei)国(guo)(guo)的(de)A-B等。各大(da)机(ji)床(chuang)制造(zao)厂商(shang)也有(you)自己的(de)一些系(xi)(xi)统,如MAZAK、OKUMA等。国(guo)(guo)内(nei)也有(you)航天(tian)集团、机(ji)电集团、华中理工大(da)学、辽(liao)宁蓝天(tian)、南京(jing)大(da)方(fang)集团、北方(fang)凯(kai)奇等数控系(xi)(xi)统供应商(shang),每家公司也都有(you)一系(xi)(xi)列的(de)各种规(gui)格(ge)的(de)产(chan)品。


 

  用户选择系(xi)统(tong)的(de)基本原(yuan)则(ze)是:性能价(jia)格(ge)比要高、购后的(de)使用维护要方便、系(xi)统(tong)的(de)市场寿命(ming)要长(zhang)(不能选淘(tao)汰系(xi)统(tong),否则(ze)使用几年后将找不到维修备件(jian))等。
 

  数控系统中(zhong)除基本功能(neng)以外还(hai)有很多可供选择(ze)的功能(neng)。对配在机床(chuang)上的系统,由于(yu)机床(chuang)使用基本要求(qiu)(qiu)所需(xu)的数控系统选择(ze)功能(neng)已由制(zhi)造商选配,用户可以根据自(zi)己的生产管理(li)、测量(liang)要求(qiu)(qiu)、刀具管理(li)、程序(xu)编制(zhi)要求(qiu)(qiu)等,额外再选择(ze)一些功能(neng)列入订货单中(zhong),如DNC接口联网要求(qiu)(qiu)等。


 

六、自(zi)动换刀(dao)装备(ATC)、自(zi)动交(jiao)换工作(zuo)台(APC)和(he)刀(dao)柄的选择配置


  1.ATC的(de)选择

  在具(ju)备(bei)综合(he)加工(gong)(gong)能力的一些(xie)数控机床上,如(ru)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)、车削中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)和带交换(huan)(huan)冲头的数控冲床等,自(zi)动(dong)交换(huan)(huan)装置(zhi)是这些(xie)设备(bei)的基本特征附件,它的工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)质量(liang)直(zhi)接关系到整机的质量(liang),也是构(gou)成(cheng)设备(bei)投资中(zhong)(zhong)的重要组成(cheng)部分(经费占整机成(cheng)本的10%~30%)。因此,在选(xuan)择主机设备(bei)时必(bi)须(xu)得重视(shi)所(suo)配ATC自(zi)动(dong)换(huan)(huan)刀装置(zhi)的工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)质量(liang)和刀具(ju)储存量(liang)。目前加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)自(zi)动(dong)换(huan)(huan)刀装置(zhi)的配套较为(wei)规范,以下以加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的ATC装置(zhi)为(wei)例来(lai)说(shuo)明(ming)其选(xuan)择原则(ze)。

 

  现场经验表(biao)明,在加(jia)工中心的(de)使用(yong)故障(zhang)中有(you)50%左右与ATC装置有(you)关,但ATC又是(shi)提高(gao)设备加(jia)工效率的(de)基本部件,因此建议用(yong)户应在满足使用(yong)要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)前提下,尽量选用(yong)结构简(jian)单和可靠性(xing)高(gao)的(de)ATC,这样也可以相应地降低(di)整(zheng)机价格。


 

  下面介绍(shao)与ATC装置相关的(de)主要技术参(can)数。

  (1)刀(dao)柄型号

  刀(dao)柄(bing)型号(hao)取决于机(ji)床(chuang)主(zhu)(zhu)轴装刀(dao)柄(bing)孔(kong)的(de)(de)规(gui)格(ge)。现在绝大(da)(da)部分(fen)(fen)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)床(chuang)主(zhu)(zhu)轴孔(kong)都是采(cai)用ISO规(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)7:24锥(zhui)孔(kong),常用的(de)(de)有(you)40号(hao)、45号(hao)、50号(hao)等,个别的(de)(de)还(hai)有(you)30号(hao)和(he)35号(hao)。机(ji)床(chuang)规(gui)格(ge)越小,刀(dao)柄(bing)规(gui)格(ge)也(ye)应(ying)选小的(de)(de),但小规(gui)格(ge)刀(dao)柄(bing)对(dui)加(jia)工(gong)大(da)(da)尺寸孔(kong)和(he)长(zhang)孔(kong)很不利,所以对(dui)一(yi)(yi)台机(ji)床(chuang)如果有(you)大(da)(da)规(gui)格(ge)的(de)(de)刀(dao)柄(bing)可(ke)选择时,应(ying)该尽量(liang)选择大(da)(da)的(de)(de),但刀(dao)库(ku)容量(liang)和(he)换(huan)刀(dao)时间都要受到影响。近(jin)年来加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心和(he)数(shu)(shu)控铣床(chuang)都向高速(su)化方(fang)向发展(zhan),许多实(shi)验数(shu)(shu)据表明(ming):当主(zhu)(zhu)轴转速(su)超过10000r/min以上(shang)时,7:24锥(zhui)孔(kong)由于离心力作(zuo)用会有(you)一(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)涨大(da)(da),影响刀(dao)柄(bing)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度。为此,一(yi)(yi)种观(guan)点是建(jian)议采(cai)用德国VDI推(tui)荐的(de)(de)短锥(zhui)刀(dao)柄(bing)HSK系列(lie),另(ling)外,在日本(ben)已有(you)部分(fen)(fen)商(shang)品的(de)(de)锥(zhui)面和(he)端(duan)面同时接触(chu)的(de)(de)过定(ding)(ding)位锥(zhui)面刀(dao)柄(bing),但在定(ding)(ding)心精(jing)(jing)度和(he)重复定(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度方(fang)面,HSK系列(lie)要好(hao)一(yi)(yi)些,目(mu)前在国内还(hai)很少有(you)厂家生(sheng)产。

  对同一(yi)种锥面规格(ge)的刀柄(bing)有日本BT标(biao)准(zhun)、美国CAT标(biao)准(zhun)、德(de)国VDI标(biao)准(zhun)等,他们规定机(ji)械手爪夹持的尺(chi)寸(cun)不一(yi)样(yang),刀柄(bing)的拉紧钉尺(chi)寸(cun)也不一(yi)样(yang),所以选择(ze)时必(bi)须考虑齐全,对已经拥有一(yi)定数的数控(kong)机(ji)床的用户(hu)或(huo)即将采(cai)购一(yi)批数控(kong)机(ji)床的用户(hu),应尽可能选择(ze)互相能通用的、单一(yi)标(biao)准(zhun)的刀柄(bing)系列(lie)。

  (2)换(huan)刀时(shi)间

  换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)是指刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄交换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian),即从(cong)主(zhu)轴上换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)下用(yong)过的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具、装(zhuang)上新(xin)的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具的(de)总(zong)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)。细分又有两种规(gui)定方式(shi),即刀(dao)(dao)(dao)对刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(Tool to tool)和总(zong)换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(Chip to chip),总(zong)换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)包含(han)了旧刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具加工(gong)完毕离开加工(gong)区域(yu)到刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具交换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)完毕主(zhu)轴上装(zhuang)上新(xin)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具进入新(xin)的(de)加工(gong)前(qian)之间(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)。目前(qian)最快(kuai)的(de)纯换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)可达0.7s左右(you),总(zong)换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)在3~12s之间(jian)(jian)(jian),立式(shi)机(ji)床(chuang)换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)一(yi)般(ban)比卧式(shi)的(de)短。换(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)(huan)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)短意味着机(ji)床(chuang)生产(chan)效率高。

  (3)最大(da)刀具重量

  最(zui)(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)重(zhong)量是指在自动刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)交换情况下允许的(de)最(zui)(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)重(zhong)量,锥度40号左右刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄最(zui)(zui)大允许重(zhong)量在7~8kg,50号刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄在15kg,一些重(zhong)型刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)可(ke)达25~30kg,但这(zhei)时换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)速度要(yao)减慢。最(zui)(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)直径和长度主要(yao)受刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库尺寸(cun)空间的(de)限制。

  (4)刀库容(rong)量

  一(yi)些加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)床上(shang)配(pei)置的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)往往有几种(zhong)规格供选(xuan)择,有十几把(ba)到40、60、100把(ba)等,一(yi)些柔性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)单元(FMC)配(pei)置中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)央刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)后刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具储存(cun)量(liang)(liang)可达(da)近千把(ba),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)的(de)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)只要(yao)能(neng)满(man)足基本需要(yao),一(yi)般不宜(yi)选(xuan)得太大,因为(wei)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)大,刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)成本高,结构(gou)复(fu)杂(za)(za),故(gu)障(zhang)率也相(xiang)应(ying)增(zeng)加,刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具管(guan)理(li)也较为(wei)复(fu)杂(za)(za)。在(zai)单台机(ji)(ji)床使用中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),当更换一(yi)种(zhong)新的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件时,操作者要(yao)根(gen)据(ju)新的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)资料对(dui)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)进行一(yi)次清理(li),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)无关的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具越(yue)多,整理(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作量(liang)(liang)也就越(yue)大,也就越(yue)容(rong)(rong)易出现人(ren)为(wei)的(de)差错。所以(yi)用户一(yi)般应(ying)根(gen)据(ju)典型工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)分(fen)析,算(suan)出需用刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具数量(liang)(liang),进而确定刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)的(de)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)。如果不是按柔性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)单元或(huo)柔性(xing)制造系统来(lai)考(kao)虑,一(yi)般机(ji)(ji)床的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)以(yi)满(man)足一(yi)种(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件一(yi)次装夹所需的(de)全部刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄数量(liang)(liang)作为(wei)选(xuan)择依据(ju)。根(gen)据(ju)国(guo)外对(dui)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)小型加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)典型工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)分(fen)析,认为(wei)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)小型机(ji)(ji)床刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具储存(cun)量(liang)(liang)应(ying)在(zai)4~48把(ba)之(zhi)间。
 

  在纳入柔性制造(zao)单元的机床中(zhong),考虑到适应(ying)多(duo)工件(jian)、多(duo)工序同时加工的要求,需要配(pei)置大(da)容量(liang)的刀(dao)库,此(ci)时应(ying)增加相应(ying)的刀(dao)具管(guan)理措施。
 

  2.刀柄和刀具(ju)的选择

  在主机(ji)和(he)自(zi)(zi)动换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)装置(zhi)(ATC)确(que)定后(hou),要(yao)选择(ze)所需(xu)的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)和(he)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju))。数控机(ji)床(chuang)所用(yong)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)系列基本(ben)(ben)都(dou)已(yi)标准(zhun)化,尤其是(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心所用(yong)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing),如美国(guo)的CAT、日本(ben)(ben)的BT和(he)我国(guo)的JT等(deng)。数控机(ji)床(chuang)加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)件最(zui)终要(yao)靠的是(shi)切削(xue)刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju),但刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju)和(he)机(ji)床(chuang)的连(lian)接、在自(zi)(zi)动交换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)(ju)时提供给机(ji)械手的夹持部(bu)位(wei)等(deng)都(dou)要(yao)靠刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)来解决,所以选择(ze)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)(ju)实质上是(shi)包括刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju)和(he)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)的配置(zhi)。刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju)选择(ze)取决于(yu)加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)(yi)要(yao)求,刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju)确(que)定后(hou)还必须配置(zhi)相应刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing),例如,工(gong)艺(yi)(yi)要(yao)求钻一个直(zhi)径6mm的小孔,则(ze)刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju)选用(yong)直(zhi)径6mm直(zhi)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)麻花钻头,然后(hou)还要(yao)选用(yong)一个能夹持钻头的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)。现在有一部(bu)分(fen)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)本(ben)(ben)身也配置(zhi)专用(yong)的刃(ren)(ren)具(ju)(ju)(ju),如精镗刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)等(deng)。总(zong)之(zhi),这些附件绝大部(bu)分(fen)都(dou)已(yi)标准(zhun)化,由专业(ye)化生(sheng)产厂供货,机(ji)床(chuang)用(yong)户要(yao)根(gen)据(ju)具(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)加(jia)工(gong)对象合理(li)选用(yong)。由于(yu)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)(bing)(bing)可供选择(ze)的范围很广,但选多(duo)了(le)将加(jia)大投资,选少了(le)将影响机(ji)床(chuang)的开动率,所以应慎重对待。
 

  对(dui)一(yi)些总(zong)批量超过几千件(jian)、反复(fu)(fu)投产的(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)加工(gong)(gong)来说(shuo),在工(gong)(gong)艺安排中可以考(kao)虑(lv)采用(yong)复(fu)(fu)合(he)刀具(ju),即利用(yong)数(shu)控机(ji)床主(zhu)切削功率(lv)较大、机(ji)床刚度(du)较好的(de)特长,采用(yong)复(fu)(fu)合(he)刀具(ju)进(jin)行(xing)多刀多刃的(de)强力切削,可提高生产率(lv)和缩短(duan)生产节拍(pai)。但(dan)一(yi)把复(fu)(fu)合(he)刀具(ju)价格要(yao)贵得多,而且(qie)变成(cheng)专(zhuan)用(yong)工(gong)(gong)具(ju),必(bi)须考(kao)虑(lv)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)有足够数(shu)量时才经济。
 

  近年在数控机床(chuang)使用的(de)刀(dao)具上开发(fa)出了(le)许多新的(de)产品(pin),大大丰富了(le)数控机床(chuang)的(de)加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺,例(li)如,万(wan)能垂直铣头、反(fan)刮(gua)刀(dao)具、去毛刺刀(dao)具、增速(su)头、铣螺(luo)纹刀(dao)和内冷刀(dao)具等(详(xiang)见产品(pin)样本(ben))。
 

  3.自动(dong)交换工作台

  自动交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)是在(zai)主(zhu)机上配(pei)置(zhi)的附件,配(pei)置(zhi)的数(shu)量(liang)有2、4、6、10个等,除双(shuang)交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)以外,主(zhu)要用柔性(xing)制(zhi)造(zao)单元配(pei)置(zhi)。双(shuang)交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)的配(pei)置(zhi)可以大(da)大(da)节省复杂零件装卸定位夹紧(jin)的辅助时间,提高(gao)机床开动率,但增(zeng)加(jia)该功(gong)能设(she)备,投(tou)资至(zhi)少要加(jia)10万元以上。多数(shu)量(liang)交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)用于(yu)柔性(xing)制(zhi)造(zao)单元,适用于(yu)24小(xiao)时少人或无(wu)人化管(guan)理,适应(ying)多品种工(gong)(gong)件交替投(tou)产加(jia)工(gong)(gong),这里应(ying)注意增(zeng)加(jia)质量(liang)检查措(cuo)施,否(fou)则投(tou)资增(zeng)长20%~50%是不经(jing)济的。

 


 

七(qi)、机(ji)床的(de)选择功(gong)能(neng)及(ji)附(fu)件(jian)的(de)选择

  在选(xuan)(xuan)购数控的(de)机(ji)床时,除(chu)满(man)足基本要求的(de)功能(neng)和基本件外,还应充(chong)分考虑(lv)到(dao)(dao)选(xuan)(xuan)择件选(xuan)(xuan)择功能(neng)及(ji)附(fu)件。选(xuan)(xuan)择原则(ze)是:全(quan)面配(pei)置,充(chong)分发挥主(zhu)机(ji)地(di)最大潜力(li),远近期效(xiao)益的(de)综合考虑(lv)。对(dui)一些价格的(de)增(zeng)加(jia)不多,但对(dui)使用(yong)起来(lai)(lai)带来(lai)(lai)很多方便的(de),应尽可能(neng)的(de)配(pei)置齐(qi)全(quan)。附(fu)件配(pei)套要保证机(ji)床到(dao)(dao)现场后能(neng)够立(li)即投入使用(yong),切忌是花(hua)几(ji)十万(wan)元(yuan)甚至几(ji)百(bai)万(wan)购买的(de)一台机(ji)床,到(dao)(dao)货后因缺乏一个几(ji)十元(yuan)或几(ji)百(bai)元(yuan)的(de)附(fu)件而长期不能(neng)使用(yong)的(de)情况(kuang)的(de)发生。
 

  对数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)选(xuan)择功能应(ying)以实(shi)用(yong)为主,不(bu)一定选(xuan)太多(duo),尤(you)其(qi)是纳入批量(liang)生产线中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)设备,应(ying)越(yue)简(jian)单(dan)越(yue)好,对多(duo)品(pin)种、小批量(liang)生产方(fang)式的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)床(chuang)要(yao)加(jia)(jia)强编(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)功能的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)择,如随机(ji)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)编(bian)(bian)(bian)制(后(hou)台(tai)编(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng))、运(yun)动(dong)图形显示、人机(ji)对话(hua)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)编(bian)(bian)(bian)制(GPS)、宏程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)编(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)等,虽(sui)然可加(jia)(jia)快程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)编(bian)(bian)(bian)制速度,但费用(yong)也要(yao)相(xiang)应(ying)增加(jia)(jia)。另(ling)一种配置(zhi)方(fang)案是简(jian)化配置(zhi)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)编(bian)(bian)(bian)制的(de)(de)(de)功能,单(dan)独另(ling)外配置(zhi)自动(dong)编(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)机(ji)及与数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)通信接(jie)口,程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)处(chu)理都事先在编(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)机(ji)上做(zuo)完成任务,然后(hou)花几分(fen)钟(zhong)时间,送入数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong),这样做(zuo)能进(jin)一步提高机(ji)床(chuang)开动(dong)率(lv)。
 

  在(zai)提高加(jia)工(gong)质(zhi)量和(he)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)可靠性上也发展(zhan)了许多(duo)附(fu)(fu)件(jian)(jian),如自动(dong)测(ce)(ce)(ce)量装(zhuang)置、接触式测(ce)(ce)(ce)头(tou)及相应(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)量软件(jian)(jian)、刀具长度和(he)磨损检(jian)测(ce)(ce)(ce)、机床热(re)变形补偿软件(jian)(jian)等(deng)附(fu)(fu)件(jian)(jian),这些附(fu)(fu)件(jian)(jian)选用(yong)原则是要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)可靠、不片面追求(qiu)新颖(ying)。对一(yi)些辅(fu)助(zhu)功能附(fu)(fu)件(jian)(jian),如冷(leng)却、防护和(he)排屑等(deng)装(zhuang)置主要(yao)(yao)根据今后在(zai)现(xian)场(chang)使用(yong)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)和(he)工(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)而定,例如,考虑以(yi)后加(jia)工(gong)大裕量铸铁件(jian)(jian)的要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),则要(yao)(yao)选用(yong)高密(mi)封防护罩、大流量淋(lin)浴式冷(leng)却方(fang)式、纸质(zhi)冷(leng)却液过滤器装(zhuang)置等(deng)。总之,要(yao)(yao)选择与生产能力相适应(ying)(ying)的辅(fu)件(jian)(jian)。

 


 

八、技术(shu)服(fu)务

  数控机床(chuang)是为一(yi)种(zhong)高科技(ji)产品,包含了(le)许(xu)多(duo)学科的(de)(de)专(zhuan)业内容,对这样复(fu)杂地(di)技(ji)术设备(bei)(bei),要(yao)应(ying)用(yong)好、维(wei)修好单(dan)靠应(ying)用(yong)单(dan)位(wei)自身(shen)努力是远远不够的(de)(de),而(er)且也(ye)很难(nan)做到,必须要(yao)依靠和(he)利(li)用(yong)社会上的(de)(de)专(zhuan)业队伍。因此(ci),在选(xuan)购设备(bei)(bei)的(de)(de)时候(hou)还应(ying)综合(he)考(kao)虑选(xuan)购其(qi)围绕设备(bei)(bei)的(de)(de)售前、售后技(ji)术服务,其(qi)宗(zong)旨就是要(yao)使设备(bei)(bei)尽(jin)快(kuai)尽(jin)量的(de)(de)发挥作用(yong)。
 

  对(dui)一些新的(de)数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)床客(ke)户(hu)来说,最困难地不是缺乏资(zi)金购买(mai)设(she)(she)(she)备(bei),而是缺乏一支(zhi)高素质地技(ji)术队伍,因此新用(yong)户(hu)要(yao)从开始选择设(she)(she)(she)备(bei)时(shi)(shi)起,包(bao)括以(yi)后的(de)设(she)(she)(she)备(bei)到(dao)货(huo)安(an)装(zhuang)验收、设(she)(she)(she)备(bei)操作(zuo)、程序编制(zhi)(zhi)、机(ji)(ji)械(xie)和电气维(wei)修等(deng),都(dou)需要(yao)人才和技(ji)术支(zhi)持。这些条件在短时(shi)(shi)间内由用(yong)户(hu)解决是很困难的(de),当前,各(ge)机(ji)(ji)床制(zhi)(zhi)造商已(yi)普遍重视商品的(de)售(shou)前、售(shou)后服务,协助用(yong)户(hu)对(dui)典型工(gong)件作(zuo)工(gong)艺(yi)分析、进行加工(gong)可(ke)行性工(gong)艺(yi)试(shi)验以(yi)及承担(dan)成套技(ji)术服务,包(bao)括工(gong)艺(yi)装(zhuang)备(bei)研制(zhi)(zhi)、程序编制(zhi)(zhi)、安(an)装(zhuang)调试(shi)、试(shi)切工(gong)件,直到(dao)全面投入生产后快速响应保修服务,为(wei)用(yong)户(hu)举办各(ge)类技(ji)术人员培训等(deng)。
 

  总之,凡重视(shi)技术(shu)队(dui)伍(wu)建(jian)设、重视(shi)职工(gong)素质提高的(de)企业,数(shu)控机床(chuang)就能得到合理使用(yong)。所(suo)以在选择机床(chuang)时(shi),建(jian)议(yi)用(yong)户花一(yi)部分资金选购针对自己短缺(que)的(de)技术(shu)服务(wu),使设备尽(jin)快发(fa)挥作(zuo)用(yong)。



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